A MTV e a internet

Bom dia, queridos,

Publico hoje mais um paper feito por mim, dessa vez, o tema é a MTV e sua relação com a internet.

As conquistas da humanidade, desde a primeira revolução industrial, e depois mais forte, desde o final do século passado, tornaram-se incontroláveis, e antes de chegarmos a um impasse, decidimos fazer a paz com as máquinas. É algo como um tecnocitizen, um telehuman - qualquer um desses termos que (des) caracterizariam o indivíduo com novos "ciber-nervos" como extensões do corpo / mente, que permitem a uma pessoa assistir, participar, responder e assim por diante com os seus vizinhos em um vilarejo global. Embora, no mundo virtual, tudo é a uma distância de um dedo.

O artefato retangular que na prateleira da loja ou no ícone do site era nada mais do que produtos da indústria eletrônica à venda, a TV torna-se, no momento mágico em que é ligado, uma janela e um espelho, fazendo conexões com o mundo e com a realidade dos espectadores. Mas, pouco a pouco, ele está perdendo espaço para outro artefato inovador, com o diferencial de fornecer o ideal, há muito procurado, de liberdade total, o absoluto poder de escolha dos usuários da internet, o PC.

Vamos analisar a influência da TV sobre o comportamento dos jovens ao longo da história da MTV, a sua ascensão e queda fornecidas pela disseminação de canais de vídeos on-line, como o YouTube e as mudanças nos hábitos da audiência produzido pela Internet.

The Beginning

According to SOARES (2004), it is considered that the video appeared in the 70's, and "Bohemian Rhapsody", by British band Queen is considered the first true music video, it was produced in 1975 and directed by Bruce Gowers and Jon Roseman. To the extent that has special effects editing, shows a union of synchronous sound and image recording and innovative music with the sounds overlap. It is from the 1970s that the music industry sees television as a means of disseminating music through music videos. From that moment, the music video is now used by various artists.

The video clip, in their first visual moments as an audiovisual gender, began to be aired on broadcast TV programs. After, a channel was created entirely dedicated to serving music videos, MTV, which started with cable transmission, but later moved to broadcast TV.

On August 1, 1981, at 12:01 a.m., MTV launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen, rock and roll," spoken by John Lack, and played over footage of the launch of Apollo 11. Those words were immediately followed by the original MTV theme song, a crunching classical tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over photos of the Apollo 11 moon landing, with the flag featuring MTV's logo changing various colors, textures, and designs.

The video clips, produced by record companies, were the MTV’s main product, an established form of communication, which includes word, body and behavior in the few minutes of viewing, adjusting the timing of your target audience. Assistindo à MTV, a impressão que se tem é que passam um videoclipe que não tem fim, com a programação pensada para criar a atmosfera musical.

The first truly branded network was MTV. The audience do not watch programs on MTV, just watch MTV. From the beginning it was clear the option of marketing created by MTV. However, one of the basic issues, despite the purely commercial interests, is a reciprocal relationship with the public broadcaster. It is precisely by entering into the young world, taking their language, is that MTV gets this loyalty and a balanced dialogue. Unifying and diffusing behavior of various ‘tribes’, from 80 years, MTV seems to have taken the means on mass communication the role of spokesman for this youth.

MTV is a kind of electronic oasis because is entertaining channel. It seems to "protect" your audience from common network offers the possibility of invading reality with the virtuality of the video clip. It constructs its schedules based on the concept of glocalization that HAMPTON (2001) defines as a combination of globalization with localization, globalization of a product is more likely to succeed when the product or service is adapted specifically to each locality or culture it is marketed in.

To put the glocalization strategy into practice, what Viacom, the network owner, takes into account is the young people’s point of views and affirms that the impact that the most valuable media brand in the world can have on youth culture, due to the philosophy of acting 70% locally and 30% internationally.

According to KDEVRIES (2007), MTV reaches 412 million households in 164 countries. In Brazil, six million of young people aged 15 to 29 years (Class AB) watch the channel in 290 cities.

The MTV’s fall

 MTV had challenged its audience with vivid images, intense electronic sounds and a variety of video clips, preparing the audience’s sensitivity to the digital world to come. Now, it is not enough anymore, the public wants more than MTV can offer. And this desire can be satisfied on what web sites, like YouTube, can provide.

With the growth of Web 2.0, many new web tools began to be successful, Orkut, Fotolog, Myspace, Facebook and Wikipedia, just to name a few, but no system web 2.0 managed to stay so long with such force, such as Youtube. Today there are several similar sites, but YouTube is still going strong. The strength of Youtube is so big that the MTV has been shaken. This was because, with the popularization of video clips on Youtube, no one else had to watch the channel, so the Sky, the signal distributor of MTV, failed to pay the rights, joined DirecTV and MTV had no choice, opened the way, is now an open TV.

This did not solve the problem, then MTV chose to create your own website, the big problem here is that whoever comes out ahead, can hardly be achieved, this is the law of the Internet.

Internet and video clip on "post-television"

 In the early 2000s video clip’s scene began to change. While MTV since the mid-90s, has been regularly decreasing your daily hours for videos, several traditional bands and singers also began to decrease the regularity with they which launched video clips or how divulged it. With this apparent decrease on video clips production, MTV has announced that due to "new behavior" of the young people and the slipping ratings, the video clips would no longer be part of the station main program from 2007.

Here, in Brazil, Zico Góes, then program director of the channel, when interviewed by MUNIZ, told the newspaper Folha de São Paulo that "the music video and television is not as it once was. Betting on the clip on TV is a delay." According to him, the young people’s audience is migrating from television to the Internet, and now is nor necessary a television to "guide" the taste of the younger.

SOARES calls our attention to a question: it is important to note that, far from a decline in production, in the 2000s happens a changing in the video clips and where they are released. Currently, most video clips is hardly aired on television, but can be easily found on the Internet, which suggests that the format of the video clip has found a cool space on the network. Bands and record labels are increasingly using the Internet to present video clips, not only through official websites, but mostly through audiovisual dissemination portals such as Youtube and Daily Motion.

Video clips of singers such as Bruno Mars can be seen on music channels like Multishow, but is on the Internet that show a greater power of attraction. A single post from one of his latest music video, The Lazy Song, directed by himself and Cameron Duddy, has more than 114 million hits and more than 267,000 comments from netizens and it was posted on april, 14th. Meanwhile, the best ratings of the channel, no more than 2 or 3 points at Nielsen, which equals about 140,000 TV sets connected to the channel. In addition, you can find additional videos, such as making-of, choreographies and a multitude of spoofs (video created by the audience) (FELINTO, 2008), reinterpreting the music and the video clip. You can see how the Internet has changed the relationship of the audience with the product. This does not mean that the video clip is disappearing from television, but the Internet has established itself as a platform for the genre.

This new circuit has encouraged also a radical change in the consumption of these products. If before the video was aired few times a day on television, during a short period and by expensive negotiations between record labels and music channels, with the virtual serving this structure has a drastic change. Anyone can attend most of the clips through a simple internet search, and also can download the file and then post it again. Or create your own video clip. With that, the video clip has broadened its scope of action incorporating, besides the massive popular music and television, the internet. And this reorganization has consolidated two categories of video clip: those made by fans and music videos in the "live".

The live video clips are a strategy for renewal of pop artist to the extent that they are cheaper, easier and quicker to produce. They appeared before the popularization of the Internet, but gained a significant range in the virtual age. Several excerpts from television programs are "transformed" into music video and posted on the internet by users and labels, changing the relation with the television and the audience. Thus, a single song can have an official music video, a version of a live show that was aired on TV and an acoustic version. So many versions would hardly be conveyed in its entirety on television, but there are not barriers on the Internet.

Video clips made ​​by fans add one more element to this structure. If before the audience made the identity of a band, now its power is amplified and may interfere more directly, it has the ability to create and post their own creations on the net about the bands.

A single posting of the official video for the song Equalize, for example, by the rocker Pitty, has nearly 2 million hits, while only a spoof of the same song has over 800 000 hits. The spoof follows a distinct logic of the official video, as this one, directed by Pier Prado and Caito Ortiz, shows everyday scenes of the singer as if at home going to the bathroom, lying on the floor, and so on, trying to bring the image of the artist's everyday fans. The spoof made by "dhionnegomes" is an animation and totally literal to the lyrics. This has been reinterpreted in order to tell a love story between a couple, expanding the meaning of the song and even the image of the artist who, instead of being seen only as rocker, is also presented as a romantic singer. For the same song there are some live video clips and a buddy poke version. This new relationship with fan music video, the artist and the song instead of dealing with cultural products as objects, the audience now sees them as a practice, or as unfinished products that can be reinterpreted and recreated.

The Internet is thus reconfiguring the video clip. Through it, the audience can act, handle, edit and create languages​​, expanding the meanings created by television and music industry. In other words, the audience acts in favor of "decentralization, circulated in the network of [a] constant and successive ownership" by passing the culture mass (LEMOS, 2004). However, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that there is not a total freedom, because the record companies constantly strive to limit the disclosure made by the audience. In addition, the technologies never reach everyone equally, but we disagree of LEMOS (2004) when he states that the mass culture created the "consumption for all." The new culture "post-mass" designs, to the dismay of intermediaries, those who hold power and control and of all who use corporatism to stop the creativity that comes out.

The Internet is not just a technology, it is the medium which is the organizational form of our societies, it is the equivalent of what was the factory or the large corporation in the industrial age. What the Internet does is to process the virtuality and transforms it into our reality, building the society in which we live.

YouTube is a tool of unquestionable value to contemporary society. We can not assess what the future may bring, but their presence is relevant. Based on some authors such as Michel Foucault, Manuel Castells, Walter Long among others, we can see how a Internet tool as YouTube can base the production of various discourses in contemporary society. Members of YouTube channels, with the exposure of their ideas, their knowledge, their images, their spoken word, their profiles, finally, with the exposure of their lives, they are unintentionally feeding the collective imagination and actively participating on the relations of today's society as the need for visibility.

YouTube has its place into the long history and into an uncertain future of the media, cultural and political participation changes and in the growth of knowledge. Clearly, it is both a symptom as an agent of cultural and economic transitions that are somehow linked to digital technologies, Internet and more direct participation of consumers.


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